The article analyzes the socio-practical potential of economic nationalism as a principal basis of economic strategies for modern developing countries. Based on a systematic analysis of the theoretical underpinnings of leading representatives of economic nationalism (from F. List to E. Reinert), and considering the situation of modern nation states in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this article argues that the economic policy of Listanism is the most appropriate for practical implementation within societies that seek to develop their economic potential, rather than secure the status of raw materials in the global economy. This article analyzes the essential features of neoliberal economic policy of the “free market”, which at the level of social practice does not confirm its universal status and is arguably detrimental to countries that have not put into effect their productive potential and have not formed a domestic market before opening their economy to free trade.
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